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While the population increases and urban sprawl continues to put pressure on the physical infrastructure in the cities, many countries have to maintain reliable water services with limited water resources. The major constraints affecting the provision of a sustainable water supply are scarcity of water sources, outdated and inadequate treatment plants and distribution networks.

With the rapid urbanization, having to cater for the new demand due to population increase along with achievement of Millennium Development Goals objectives are major challenges. New raw water sources and more treatment facilities are needed. Further to this, many of the urban water supply schemes have poor infrastructure or treatment limitations to provide more clean water.

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