When water related natural disaster happen, it is important to implement as soon as possible a sanitation solution that can efficiently isolate the faeces and ensure privacy and dignity to the victims. The overall objective is to avoid spread of disease such as diarrhoea or cholera.
Julien Eyrard Action Contre la Faim
sanitation emergency latrines
Sanitation Latrines Human excreta management
When water-related natural disaster happen emergency santitation is crucial to avoid subsequent spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera.
Emergency sanitation will be effectively done only if we meet 3 conditions::
1. Coverage (maximal access in shortest time)
2. Containment (faeces are isolated from human and environmental contact)
3. Dignity (users have privacy, minimal comfort)
These 3 conditions are difficult to match together and there is no (not yet) “one size fits all” solution, but several solutions that can be used according to the context. This contribution will focus on the latest sanitation technologies used in the frame of humanitarian emergencies, based on field experience: Portaloos (used in Port au Prince, Haiti), KK Nag Magic emergency sanitation plates (used in all major emergencies these last 5 years) and PeePoo biodegradable bags.
Urban and rural context, any climatic condition – nobody knows where the next humanitarian emergency will happen.
Portaloos are best for urban areas or areas where digging (a pit or a trenche) is impossible (hard soil, high water table, paved roads…)
KK nag magic are best for rural context and any place where digging is easy.
PeePoo bags are best for the very first days / hours of the intervention, when no other solution can be deployed (they are easy to store and to transport).
NGOs involved in the WASH cluster. Partnership with private sector for realisation of the sanitation products (such as KK Nag Magic for the latrine slabs or PeePoo for the biodegradable bags, Arnal for the Portaloos).
Most of the sanitation items used already exist and have been developed according to recommendation made by emergency actors / NGOs. Some aspects are still under improvement: accessibility of the latrines slabs for disable people or children for example. The presentation will focus on 3 items developed with the help of the private sector: – Portaloos – Peepoo bags – Emergency slabs (KK Nag Magic).
Emergency sanitation: how to reach all victims in the shortest time to ensure proper sanitation, with no compromise in terms of victim’s dignity and safety.
Urban context: in such context it may be difficult or impossible to dig pit (paved roeads, no space…). Under such condition, portaloos and peepoo bags are possible alternatives to pit latrines.
The added value of the solution can be calculated on disease outbreak risk reduction. How much would cost (not only financially) a cholera outbreak? Impacts on the long term can be calculated based on the fact that implementing good sanitary condition for the victims of a disaster will help them in terms of health and dignity. This will have a positive impact on the whole recovery process.
Each emergency operation is done in coordination with the WASH cluster. Emergency solutions are monitored and evaluated by NGOs and external evaluations. All technical solutions presented in this contribution have been evaluated.
The 3 items presented can be used during any emergency operation, with the given context: – Portaloos where impossible to dig – KK Nag Magic slab where possible to dig – PeePoo bags as a first solution for the first hours of the intervention
Portaloos: can be used only if a safe desludging / final disposal site is existing in the country (and not too far from the location). Emptying the tanks will be done on a dailly basis and sludge must be disposed in a safe area (large size pit, treatment plant, constructed wetland…).Trucks are expensive to rent or to run. It is advaisable to use a renting agency that will rent the full service (cubicles + desludging and transportation).
KK Nag magic: to follow the WASH cluster and SPHERE standards in terms of implementation, size, number of slabs etc.
PeePoo bags: OK as a first emergency answer but should not be used over long period without making sure all conditions are met regarding dignity and safety of the victims.
KK Nag is used by all the WASH cluster organisations. It is part of the standard kit for the WASH cluster. PeePoo are under the process of being included in contingency stocks. Portaloos were used in Haiti by the WASH cluster.
Julien Eyrard, Action Contre la Faim firstname.lastname@example.org