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Groundwater in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India is tapped through about 2.2 million wells. The state is largely underlain by hard-rocks, where well-yields are low and determined by thickness of the weathered and fractured zones of the country rock. The rainfall and aquifer characteristics vary within short distances. Additionally, the footprint of food (rice cultivation) on water resulted in depletion of groundwater table. 47% of the state’s area is currently facing water stress. The Central Groundwater Board (CGWB) classified 175 (15.5%) mandals (blocks) as Semi-critical, 77 (7%) as Critical and 219 (19.5%) as Over-exploited out of total 1125 mandals. The state-sponsored legislations, regulating groundwater use, proved to be very difficult to enforce, simply because the number of wells outnumbered the number staff hired by enforcing agencies.

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