Actually, many oriental counties are on shot rations of water for irrigating. The water deficiency in Central Asia region is increasing. Aral Sea has almost disappeared. Ecological catastrophe in Aral Sea region should be considered not only as a regional but as a global one. When the reasons of Aral Sea problem and water deficiency in Central Asia are discussed, everybody points to the increasing of irrigated areas within last 50-60 years.
Mamanov Abdurahim Abduhakimovich
Metayage, quantitative tax, water resources effective usage, ecological improvement, agriculture’s growth, creating of conditions for social cooperation, Aral Sea problem’s solution
category: policy and tax legislation
Actually, many oriental counties are on shot rations of water for irrigating. The water deficiency in Central Asia region is increasing. Aral Sea has almost disappeared. Ecological catastrophe in Aral Sea region should be considered not only as a regional but as a global one. When the reasons of Aral Sea problem and water deficiency in Central Asia are discussed, everybody points to the increasing of irrigated areas within last 50-60 years. We thick, it cannot completely explain the reasons. We are persuaded the problem appeared after the revocation of the metayage – tax form which have been applied in oriental countries for centuries. The metayage possesses several defects so it was replaced by other tax forms in many countries in Orient. Today’s situation shows that the metayage had its reasons for being implemented. First, this tax was an indispensable regulator for water resources effective usage’s growth. Second, it participated in forming of the population’s ecological culture. Third, it affected the growth of the farming culture and, finally, creates facilities for social cooperation.
The metayage assures direct interest of the State in the growth of the harvest for the state’s share in this case grows too. Water regulators – mirabs – were remunerated by a part of the harvest – mirabona. It stipulated their interest in a zeal water distribution. We know that the stable water distribution is a main condition in the case of irrigated agriculture. But it should not limit the role of the state in harvest growth affair. The irrigation system transforms a river valley in an integrated economy managed by the state. So, the state can and should work for the growth of the harvest and the farming culture (e.g. agricultural areas improvement, water distribution control, agricultural machinery providing etc.). As a matter of fact, the state does a lot to increase the water resources effective usage and the harv
This solution (the metayage) has been applied for centuries almost in all oriental countries, particularly in those where the economy is based on the irrigated agriculture. Actually this tax is applied in several countries in Asia, Africa and South America.
Author: Mamanov Abdurahim, researcher, Samarkand State University (Uzbekistan). The author is persuaded in the possibility of the growth of water resources effective usage and ecological improvement by the re-introducing of the metayage.
Mamanov Abdurahim is a sole author of the project and responsible for its implementation. This project was described in several articles published in uzbek press: 1. “Baxs” – Samarkand region fiscal administration organ (May, 29, 2009); 2. “Zaravshan” – Samarkand region administration (July, 11, 2009). The author appealed for Ecological Group in Uzbek parliament. The idea was supported by Azizov Iskander, Oliy Majlis (Parliament) deputy (“Zaravshan” newspaper, May, 29, 2010). According to the non-official information, this project was discussed in Oliy Majlis committees. This problem is the priority direction in my scientific research. The article where this project was exposed, was published in two scientific reviews: “Agriculture of Uzbekistan” and “
- Improvement of the effective usage of water resources. Environment enhancement. Farming culture’s improvement. Creating of favorable circumstances for social cooperation.
- The main regulator is the metayage which is supposed to stipulate the efforts of the State and those of the mirabs – direct water distributors – as well. This method ensures the tight control on the usage of water resources.
- The final results will be once again discussed in “Monitoring” part. The solution we suggest favours the growth of irrigated areas in 1.5-2 times. The quantum of gross output increases in 3-4 times. That will certainly attract a new investment in agriculture and will create millions of new jobsites and will improve public welfare.
- This solution allows escaping the water resources deficiency for next 100-150 years.
- Introducing of the metayage in irrigated agriculture favours the improvement of the effective usage of water resources. Actually, over 13,000 m3 of water are expended on one irrigated hectare in Uzbekistan. By our count, it exceeds the average rate for 3-4 times. The water volumes expended on the irrigating in other countries of Central Asia are not better. Introducing of the metayage will allow increasing of irrigated areas in 2-2.5 times and in 1.5-2 times the harvest. The quantum of gross output will increase in 3-4 times and that will entail the state and public income. The metayage conditions the reducing of water expending. In one hand, it allows increasing the irrigated areas, in the other hand, will solve problems linked with the exceeding in water usage (soil erosion, salinity, bogging etc.) These results (e.g. soil improvement, Aral Sea’s problem resolution etc.) will be achieved in perspective.
This solution is an answer to farmers’ demand for they have not stable water supply. In low-water years they find themselves in a deadlock. The actual economic system (taxing method) does not proved enough water volumes to the farms which are far-situated from water sources. Water resources to these areas are often supplied by mean of supreme efforts of the farmers themselves. In low-water years they have got only one question: how to get enough water? At the same time, the farms situated near to water sources can consume as much water as they want. Sometimes it exceeds water volumes in flood time, because these farmers are not sure to get enough water another time. Consequently, no one gets a good harvest: farms situated in low reaches of irrigation ditch do not get enough water; those ones which are near the ditch suffer from surplus water.
The application of this solution is equitable to the interests of the society: the income of the state increases as well as a public well-being which creates the basis for the social cooperation.
The realization of this project depends on a political decision and further changing in legislation.
The main execution condition is the political will of the authorities.
People engaged in the execution of this project should study the experience of the countries where the metayage has already been applied.
The minimum investment is the political will of the government.
The success of this idea actually depends on the support of international economic, scientific, ecologic, and humanitarian organizations. We would like to present this project to a wide discussion; we also count on the support of the scientific community of our country.
Actually, no organization is charged with the application of this project.
The author of the project – Mamanov Abdurahim, researcher at Samarkand State University. Address: Beshdargom village, Kichikmundyan s/s, Katakurgan district, Samarkand region, Republic of Uzbekistan.
e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
I can also provide any additional information on any support. Articles referring to this subject were published in “Baxs” – Samarkand region fiscal administration organ (May, 29, 2009); “Zaravshan” – Samarkand region administration organ (July, 11, 2009). The article where this project was exposed, was also published in two scientific reviews: “Agriculture of Uzbekistan” and “Ecological Bulletin”. This problem is one of the priorities in my scientific work: “Orient and Occident – comparative approach to the study of the reasons of development peculiarities.”