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Performance assessment of wastewater services is a major issue in modern management. Most performance assessment systems (PASs) do not specifically apply to treatment plants, core elements of these services. Over the past 7 years, LNEC has been developing PAS for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as for drinking water treatment plants. In 2009, a field test was launched in Portugal (PASt21), involving 17 WWTPs and 18 institutions (see ‘Actors’).

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