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Kerala is a state of south-western India with 38863 Km2 land mass. It has a population of 31.8 million. The population density is 819 persons per Km2 and accordingly the state is thrice as densely populated as the rest of India. Kerala’s temperature averages from a minimum and maximum of 19.80 C and 36.70 C respectively. The state has rainfall averaging to 300 cm

The dependence on wells is higher in rural areas of the state. Ground water is likely to be contaminated by various causes such as unsafe latrines, domestic waste dumps, and proximity of wells to latrines, waste dumps or cattle sheds. Elevation of water table during rainy season further aggravates the chances of well water contamination. The state authorities have certain action programmes in tackling water contamination and water shortage, but are only partially successful. Therefore, it necessitated evaluation and improvements.

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