In Thar Desert underground water is a major source of drinking water except rainwater (few weeks in a year if it gets). AWARE Team installed first model windmill in 2004 and later on more 05 windmills are installed in different villages of Thar and those windmills are used for dragging out underground water for drinking water as well as for kitchen gardening.
Renewable energy, Access to water, Food security, NRM
Here are some different aspects;
- Easy access to driking water
- Environment friendly source of energy harnessed
- Without any external input local natural resources are utilized
- Water scarcity and food insecurity are addressed
In Thar Desert underground water is a major source of drinking water except rainwater (few weeks in a year if it gets). As per an assessment 98% of Thari inhabitants (1.5million population) have to depend on underground water. The depth of underground water varies from 50′ to 350′ feet depth. The issues in dragging out water are:
· Three persons of each household spend three to five hours daily (average) to search, drag out and fetch to home for human consumption and watering the pet animals
· In case of depth of more than 50 feet, people use donkey, bull or camel for pulling the water bucket
· In drought, due to fodder shortage animals get weaker/livestock keepers migrate to elsewhere and in that condition women and children (because healthy persons also migrate to earn livelihood out of Thar) have to pull the rope by hands
· Malnutrition and drop out of school going children is common
· Due to difficult practice of water collection, women use less water (bath, washing, cleanliness etc)
· Unhygienic conditions result in increased diseases
· Ultimately results in shape of surplus leakage and in the result chronic poverty keeps on growing
AWARE conducted a research; windmill: a viable option for Thar Desert and presented in 8th ICAAD @ Beijing China in February 2006 http://www.icarda.org/Publications/8th-ICDD-AbstractsBook/Theme7.pdfabstract on 3rd # in series on page.
This is pertinent to mention that Government has installed tube wells along diesel operated engines and those have not succeeded in cushioning the hardships of Thari people because;
· High recurring cost
· Thari people have only rain fed agriculture and livestock two major income sources
· Cash flow is less in comparison of other parts of country
· No technology transfer
· Communication gap
· Low literacy rate
· So, in the light of research it was learnt that, Thar need such technology/model which is:
· Appropriate Technology
· Requires less recurring cost
· No frequent maintenance required
· No or less recurring cost
· The answer to all above points is;
· Only renewable energy, wind, solar and biogas
· We recommend here windmill to cushion the hardship
AWARE Team installed first model windmill in 2004 and later on more 05 windmills are installed in different villages of Thar and those windmills are used for dragging out underground water for drinking water as well as for kitchen gardening. The average out put of water per windmill per day is 35,00 liters. The brief benefits are:
· The wind velocity, research and experiences have proved that Windmill is a single viable option to cushion the hardships of Thari suffering souls
· The environment friendly, sustainable, less/no recurring cost and easy to maintain and appropriate technology
· This is not only the problem of water supplying but also the effects of drought is reduced
· The saving of time and human resources are utilized in economic activities (specially women make traditional embroidery/stitch work of Thar and earn livelihood. Health status of women, improvement in self hygiene and continuity of school going children are major benefits.
· By kitchen gardening the problem of malnutrition is minimized by growing organic food.
· The rural-urban migration is decrease and reforestation/agro forestry and increased vegetation are by products of windmills so far learnt.
There are six windmills installed in villages of Taluka Chachro, District Tharparkar Sindh. Thar Desert pusses different characteristics in comparison of other parts of Pakistan. This typical area which has:
· Geographical area 22,000 sq kms
· Population 1,167,000 souls (56% of Arid Zone of Sindh Province (Census 1998)
· Population Density 54/sq km
· Rainfall 9-0-350 mm
· Rainfall in July to September
· Every 3rd year is drought year and one famine in a decade
· Migration due to drought is 58%
· Livestock is 4.6 million heads
· Villages over 1000 population 100
· Villages under 1000 population 1455
· Village sunder 500 population 1010
· Total villages 2565
· Average Temperature 108 F
· No river or canal water
· Rain water and groundwater are water sources
Ali Akbar (Executiev Director of AWARE) done research. Where as members of AWARE and philanthropists and community supported in materializing the ideas.
Research was started in 2001 but first model of windmill for drinking water was installed in 2004. The paper in instrenational event was presented in 2006. The model of windmill for kitchen gardening was commisioned in 2008. The averaage out put of water is 35,000 lietrs water per day.
Researchers and local Government are found more interested in this.
All installed windmills are found sucessfull and providing water. People are using for drinking, watering pet animals and kitchen gardening.
AWARE is planning to develop documentary in English as well as conduct an impact assesment of this innovative project.
Easy access to water – from depth of 230 feet water dragged out.
Technology requires no or very less recuring cost.
This is envirinmet friendly- no side effets.
This is also user friendly.
The area is rich in wind, so this aspiration for friends of environment to struggle for more promotion of renewable energy (wind, solar and biogas in area)
- School drop out reduced in villages where windmills are installed.
- Condition of women improved – their nurden reduced and saved time is used for embroidery making and earning.
- Children and women found opportunity of keep them clean/hygiene care.
- Nutrition – fresh vegetables and fruits are a miracle for them in Desert and this has good impact on health.
-Impact assesment is need of hour.
- There is need to replicate this in coastal area and Balochistan (Pakistan has 730 running miles of coast) having enough wind velocity.
- Windmill could be hybird with solar and that could be a source of electricity generation.
- Political will is required to replicate in orther parts of Thar and coatal areas.
- Academia – University should send their students/researchers to elaborate further the different aspects.
- Community is willing but capital cost is much more, so mechanism of co-financing is also needed.
- This is enviornment friendly and long lasting user friendly technology.
- If area has potential of wind then it is good but in case of low velocity it could be hybird with solar.
- We have harnessed wind for draggingout underground water but this could be used for electricity generation.
- Communtiy has potential but initially we have a develop a model to educate the stakeholders especially main stakeholders – that is community.
- FANSA Pakistan delegation recently visited the projects as well as media delegations and that has supported in sharing with different stakeholders.
- AWARE has a plan to share with like minded Organizations and other interested institutions/individuals, so documentary in english is aimed to be developed.