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Protection of the drinking water ressource from diffuse agricultural pollution

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Agriculture is one of the main economic activities in the area of the Porche drinking water catchment located in the Cher Department (FRANCE). As often in this context, drinking water resources are threaten by high nitrate concentrations. The solution suggested here follow the objective of Securing the drinking water supply for a town of 100 000 inhabitants by the the evolution of agricultural practices and the reduction of the amount of nitrates under the leadership of the local authorities.

Two types of action are developed:
- technical measures for the reduction of fertilizers and agricultural methods,
- an organised plan lead by a Pilot Committee, and a strong association of farmers.

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Observatory of the water resource in mountainous regions (Alps)

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During the “3rd international congress of integrated management in high watersheds” held in Megève on September 2010 was born the idea of a permanent Observatory of Water in Mountain. This Observatory intends to create synergy on the fundamental question of the role of the massifs for the good management of the resource with regards to the increase of water requirements and of the climate change.
Planned since 2011 on several sites of the “Savoy Region “, this Observatory aims to be extended in other experimental sites on the French Alps, and even abroad on totality of the alpine massif on the following themes:

  • 1st Component: resource sharing (drinking water, agriculture, artificial snow, aquatic environments,…).
  • 2nd Component: conservation of wetlands and watersheds environments
  • 3rd Component: evolution of water masses and risk assessments (floods, torrents, droughts…)

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The Andhikhola Hydel and Rural Electrification Project (AHREP), Nepal

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The Amdhikhola hydropower plant was built on a model of sustainable development for rural community:

  • the dam produced 40Wh of electricity every year
  • 100,000 people spread over 32 villages have acess to electricity
  • 200 small enterprises have been set up since it was put into operation
  • the excess water from the headrace is used to irrigate 282Ha of land, wich benefits 800 household
  • the operation and management of the irrigation system is provided by a farmers organisation
  • the choice of low cost wiring facilitating the connection to electricity to low-income families
  • a fixed tariff system is used which does not need meter reading, thereby decreasing the administrative costs
  • promoting using electricity for cooking instead of the fuel wood contribute to the environmental protection
  • more than 20 users organisations are involved in the management of local distribution of electricity

 

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Comparison of water supply options in the Gaza Strip

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This plan, the Gaza comparative study of water supply options (CSO-G) differs in both its timing and its overall approach.  It represents the first component of an envisaged emergency response to the problems in the water sector in Gaza, and provides proposals for an overall strategy to address – and hopefully resolve – the current problems.

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Benefits of proper management of water users in the basin of St. Jerome.

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Users Association provides water to farmers, as well as between the various services which include hydropower and drinking water community services, which are favored three communities and the urban area. Another service provided is AURSA watershed protection and water recharge areas, through payment for environmental services, which are required from all users and come next year to also pay the municipality of San Jerome and a power generation company ENEL call. AURSA also entered to work with the generation of electricity through a small hydro project, which is in operation will generate 1 watt of energy.

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Native seeds and familiar agriculture like a strategic regional plan to sustainably and food security-sovereignty

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In Chiapas, thousands of traditional farmers rejected the public policies based in agrochemicals and promote local strategy to protected and sustaintability agriculture. Also, on 2007 the traditional farmers  published their “Popular Native Seeds Initiative” to guide the publics policies to food sovereignty and food security,  with agroecological good practices to protected the agrobiodiversity of genetical erosion and stopped the soil erosion caused by hurricane winds and extremly rains.

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Astuce&Tic : Prediction of the impact of urbanisation and climate change on ecosystemic services (water and soil)

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The main goal of A&T program is to build up an integrated approach of a territory by combining knowledge, tools and know how developed until today independently in agronomy, soil science, geochemistry, geography, urbanization and economy. Three groups of indicators are produced : (i) Soil artificialization that increases runoff and erosion, (ii)  Water quality and quantity related to Soil resources (iii) Crop production.

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A framework and a list of 80 major mitigation options for reducing nutrient emissions from agriculture for Europe

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The Water Framework Directive (WFD) which regulates water resources requires improvement to the quality of surface water and groundwater. In the past many measures have been implemented to reduce the contribution of point sources, and as a result diffuse pollution from agricultural became more important. The solution consists in undertaken a scientific evaluation of the suitability and cost effectiveness of different options for reducing nutrient loss to surface and ground waters at the river basin scale, including their limitations in terms of applicability under different climatic, ecological and geographical conditions.

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Effect of cropping systems on water recharge to aquifer in the Temperate and Mediterranean zones for current and next climates.

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The modelers of the cropping systems in INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) have joined their effort in the CLIMATOR Project, coordinated by N. Brisson, to study the effect of the cropping systems on the water recharge of the aquifers.

This collective study underlines the necessary adaptation of the cropping systems where the irrigated water comes from the catchment itself. In some situations, the available water for irrigation in summer will be determined by the chosen surrounding rainfed crops.

 

 

 

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Nebraska Agricultural Water Management Network (NAWMN)

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Maximizing the net benefits of irrigated plant production through appropriately designed agricultural water management programs is of growing importance in Nebraska, and other western and Midwestern states, and around the world, because many areas are involved in management and policy changes to conserve irrigation water. In Nebraska, farmers are being challenged to practice conservation methods and use water resources more efficiently while meeting plant water requirements and maintaining high yields.

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