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Environmental taxes to support ecosytem services payment.

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Implementation of environmental taxes based on water abstraction and/or polluted water discharged. The level of the taxes is calculated regarding the level of abstraction and the quantity/type of polluting parameters. The money raised through these taxes is earmarked to finance measures to reduce pollution (e.g. treatment of waste water) in the ecosystem and to restore ecosystem (e.g. soft management of rivers) that provides services.

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Green Adaptation – Making effective use of ecosystem services to adapt to the effects of climate change

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A unique concept of Green Adaptation is the Sand Engine, by the Dutch Building with Nature innovation program. A huge nourishment of 20 million m3 of sand has been deposited in front of the Dutch Delfland coast, after which wind, waves and sea currents will naturally disperse the sand. This will contribute to the coastal safety in the long term and in addition create areas for nature and recreation. In this approach, maintenance costs are drastically reduced compared to traditional coastal defense structures, as natural coastal processes are exploited.

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Green Water Defense in East Asia

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Green Water Defense (GWD) is a balanced and adaptive philosophy and management approach which seeks to integrate natural forces and artificial interventions, and to balance incentive-based and supply-driven measures, with low footprints and externalities in sustainably managing water services and related climate risks (The World Bank, 2011).

  1. Water has to be managed as a precious resource, a service media and a potential risk factor totally in different forms, and in an integrated manner with other natural resources (land, environment), and its users —–Integrated total water management and water cycle management
  2. Water resources management needs to be guided by the principle of ‘live and build with nature’;
  3. Water development and management design should be right-based, productivity focused and oriented towards multiple functions and wins (productive, conservation and risk reduction);
  4. GWD requires a multi-stakeholder participation governance structure, and balanced demand side and supply-driven interventions, to tailor location-specific water management solutions.

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Ecosystem Approaches in Integrated Water Resources Management (ECO-IWRM)

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This research on IWRM planning and implementation in transboundary case studies demonstrate the successes and challenges in applying such an integrated approach at the international level. The case studies demonstrate that while IWRM planning and implementation is generally stated as a priority at national and transboundary levels, IWRM implementation remains weak and marginalized from mainstream governance and resources.

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