The case study highlights collaborative sharing of river water through two different storage approaches: underground storage across states and surface storage across countries. To address expected shortages of water due to climate variability/change Arizona (U.S.) has developed a water banking program that allows for storage of Colorado River water in aquifers for later recovery. Also, Arizona has also developed agreements to store water on behalf of neighboring states to allow them to meet future water needs.
Droughts have several economical, social and environmental impacts, depending on their intensity and duration. Occurrence of droughts is a natural event and it is not specific to a region or climatic regime, and it can occur in different climatic and geographic situations. Unlike floods that have limited coverage areas, droughts usually affect vast regions, and this causes a more widespread and extensive range of impacts which last for a long time. Therefore, droughts affect a large number of populations in comparison with other natural disasters. The experiences in developed and developing countries on drought management has proved that besides the level of development, the impacts and consequences of this phenomenon is deep and considerable, even with different characteristics and nature. With no doubt, the occurrence of this phenomenon is one of the important obstacles in the development process of the countries. As the impacts of this event lasts for a long period, the countries and people who have been affected by this phenomenon are forced to spend extensive financial resources to encounter it during and after the event.
The solution proposed here is the development and implementation of the first global scale Programme of Activities financed partly through carbon revenues: the International Water Purification Programme.
The purpose of the PoA is to use carbon finance for the introduction of low greenhouse gas emitting water purification systems to provide clean drinking water to low income households. This PoA is structured as an open platform and will be registered under UNFCCC. It is a multi-country programme that is open to different players and different types of water purification technologies.