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Allocation of water for multiple use by means of water rights allocation for hydropower (DRDH)

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Historically, in Brazil, water resources management has been associated with the electric-power sector. Up until 1997, it was the National Water and Electric Energy Department (DNAEE) that issued licenses for the use of water from rivers under federal jurisdiction.  Though this sector is well organized and can claim credit for Brazil’s clean energy mix, there was little concern for multiple use. With enactment of Law 9433, of 1997, multiple use became one of the cornerstones of Brazil’s water-resources management policy. At first, issuing water use licenses was in charge of the Secretariat for Water Resources of the Ministry of Environment (SRH/MMA) and subsequently in 2000 of ANA. In 2003, ANA instituted specific licenses for the electric-power sector, known as “Declaração de Reserva de Disponibilidade Hídrica” (DRDHs), or Water Rights allocation for hydropower, which allocate flows to the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL).

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Good practice by a local utility to improve access to water and affordability within current French regulations

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Access to water : Société des Eaux de Marseille proposes some legal and technical solutions to handle various types of emergency situations that may happen in a 1 million-inhabitant developped city, including temporary illegal settlements and support to low income families..

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Technical cooperation on legislation, governance, management, participation, and funding mechanisms (Brazil-France)

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Brazilian legislation on IWRM (9.433 law, January 1997) is largely derived from the French legislation (1964 and 1992 laws). As a federal state, the institutional framework of Brazil is close to the one encounter in the European Union. Hence, it seemed logical to launch a project in which Brazilians and French water actors would exchange experiences and best practices on their respective laws, and for the French part, on European legislation.

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Land Use Planning: Legislation, policy and strategies to mitigate flood risks

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Planning legislation and planning policy aimed at reducing future urban development in flood prone areas and accompanying flood zone mapping. State and local government planners are constrained by legislation which has therefore had to develop to encompass realistic flood zone development constraints.

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The French Global Environment Facility support to the Volta Basin Authority: creation of an observatory of water resources and associated environments

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Although 19 million people live in the Volta basin and largely depend on its resources for their livelihoods, no basin organization was in place to effectively manage its resources until January 2007. On that date, a convention was adopted by the riparian States, creating the Volta Basin Authority (VBA) and defining the legal status of the river.

 

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Social Connection Policy – Nairobi

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Under its new Social Connection Policy, Nairobi Water Company allocates 1% of all water revenues to financing the extension of water services to the residents of the city’s informal settlements, who represent about 60% of the population. The funds are used for capacity development of the company’s informal settlements department, development of customer service systems for the low income segment, strengthening the contractual linkages between utility, small providers and consumers, mapping the existing assets, planning service improvements, project preparation, community mobilisation as well as infrastructure installation and refurbishment, where this is needed. The goal of the policy is to ensure there is a water service point within 50 meters of every household in the city.

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Finland programme supporting water and sanitation improvement in EECCA Countries under the Wider Europe Initiative (WEI)

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FinWater WEI is a flagship programme under the Wider Europe Initiative that strengthens Finland’s development policy through a comprehensive approach to Finland’s development cooperation in the EECCA area (Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia). It aims to promote regional stability and prosperity in the partner countries of the initiative as well as in the wider European region. The themes of the initiative are security, trade and development, information society development, energy and the environment, and social sustainability.
The FinWater WEI programme works to ensure sustainable water management in the EECCA area. Along with the needs of the partner countries, the programme is based on Finland’s Development Policy Programme, UN¬ECE legal instruments on water, the EU Water Initiative, and the UN Millennium Development Goals on water. The Strategic Cooperation Programme for Finland’s Water Sector Support to the EECCA countries 2009 – 2013 (FinWaterWEI) approved in December 2009 defines five focal areas:  water and health; transboundary waters; dam safety; monitoring, reporting and assessment; climate change.

The programme contains three different types of activities: 1. Activities or processes led by international institutions. 2. Bilateral activities as either stand alone or as components of some larger programme involving one or more additional financier. 3. Institutional capacity building activities between organizations in Finland and in the EECCA countries.
Country specific activities regarding Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) -aimed at improving coverage and quality of water sector services, are initiated through National Policy Dialogues. This National Policy Dialogues involve high level representatives of all key partners in the country in question, including representatives of relevant international organisations and civil society (NGOs).

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Guide on “Good practices to ensure equitable access to water and sanitation in the pan-European region”

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The guide is intended to make a signficant contribution to the achievement of the objective of equitable access for all.

The guide includes an overall assessment of the current situation (international obligations to achieve equitable access; assessment of the existing infrastructures and fulfillment of the equitable access, challenges faced).

 

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Establishment of conventions on “sustainable hydropower”

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It consists in the writing and establishment (in each voluntary country involved in the Europe region preparatory process) of conventions similar to the French « Agreement of commitments for the development of a sustainable hydropower consistent with the restoration of aquatic environments, following the “Grenelle Environment Round Table”».
This convention aims to conciliate the development of hydropower generation with the conservation and restoration of aquatic environments. It provides a set of rules and guidelines to achieve this goal, including but not limited to:
– fostering research in order to strengthen knowledge on species, and  impacts of infrastructures
– strengthening the follow-up and monitoring of hydropower infrastructures’ impacts on hydromorphology, hydrology and the functioning of aquatic environments
– upgrading existing infrastructures in order to bring them up to the new regulations (environmental flow, fish passes, etc)
– integrating the cost of reducing environmental impacts in refurbishment and upgrading investments
– conciliating energy and environmental goals & optimizing hydropower generation through call for competition on concessions and common ownership of concessions located in the same basin
– supervising the removal of infrastructures
– identifing hydropower potentials in sectors where environmental stakes are limited, and develop the potential of existing infrastructures
– avoiding as much as possible discontinuities, reduce their impacts, or, in last resort, compensate them. Develop standards for impact assessment.
– simplifying and rationalizing administrative procedures
– establishing and perpetuating dialogue on the convention through a follow-up committee, meeting at least twice yearly.

Such an instrument could usefully be replicated in other countries

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Identification of Potential Water Reserves Environment in Mexico

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This study identifies areas of the country with water availability, rich biodiversity and ecological favorable conditions to establish water reserves in order to guarantee flows for ecological protection under the terms of the National Water Law.

 

 

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