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Household Water Supply Technologies for Increasing Access to Domestic Water Supplies

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EMAS household water technologies have been developed in Bolivia, South America over the past three decades, and consist primarily of manual water pumps made from materials commonly available in developing countries, hybrid percussion-jetting manual drilling techniques, and rainwater harvesting systems that often use underground storage tanks. 

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Professionalizing Manual Drilling in Africa

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Reducing the cost of boreholes four-fold would enable more wells to be drilled for the same investment. This can be achieved by developing professional manual drilling sector in Africa. Low-cost manual drilling has already demonstrated its effectiveness in Asia, Africa and Latin America as a means of increasing the availability of potable water. When there are substantial populations in areas with hydrogeology that is favorable for manual drilling, then the investment in developing a professionalized manual drilling sector is recommended.

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Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa

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A study concerning the identification of suitable zones for manual drilling has been carried out in 12 countries (Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo) from 2008 to 2010. The methodology was based in the integration of different information already existing (like maps and data, reports, direct experience of water experts in each country) but not properly organized. All the information was corrected and organized in a GIS database; the cross-analysis of the different layers allowed to identify  the geological suitability (soft and permeable shallow geological layers), the suitability according to water depth (exploitable water not deeper than 25 m) and the most suitable morphological structure.

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