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LEGISLATIVE AND FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK FOR DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL SEWERAGE SYSTEMS IN VALENCIAN COMMUNITY (SPAIN)

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Since 1993,  the Valencian Regional Government enjoys a financing tool, which at that time was the first in Spain and inspired many other similar ways to finance sanitation water services in Spain. This Canon is really an environmental tax because it pursuits the improvement and  the conservation status of the Environment of the Valencian Community. For spilling control, the Public Entity for Waste Water Sanitation of the Regional Government of Valencia designs spilling plans for those towns with an important industrial sector. Once the Plan is done and permanent and momentary sample taking apparatus are installed, the control is carried out by the City Council, reporting to the Public Entity.

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Water Use Master Plan (WUMP) – an approach to participatory and inclusive planning for integrated water resources management

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The Water Use Master Plan is a planning process applying an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach. It is a response to the widely felt need for an instrument for local actors to address water management issues properly. The WUMP process ensures identification of available water resources and water needs at the level of a Village Development Committee (VDC), the lowest administrative unit in Nepal (‘commune’). Moreover, it provides an overview about available and needed water-related infrastructure. This enables planning/prioritizing the use of available water resources (drinking water, irrigation, water for nature and other uses) and serves as a basis for sound investments in the water sector.

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Low cost sewerage systems in Tegucigalpa

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The choice of technology was based on construction cost in contrast with traditional sewage design. The small-bore sewage systems (solid free sewerage) convey the domestic sewage which settled on-site in a septic tank. Only the settled sewage is discharged into the sewage pipes to the main collector. The community provided the manual labour (each household had to excavate 15m of trench and some local construction materials including PVC accessories. UNICEF in partnership with Cooperative Housing Foundation (CHF) provided families with near-market-rate credit to construction of household sanitary services such as toilet, shower etc.

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River Basin Clean-Up Program (PRODES)

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In line with worldwide trends, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has been adopted as a strategy for environmental management in Brazil. The River Basin Clean-up Program (PRODES) launched by ANA in 2001 was the first Output-based Aid (OBA) experience implemented in Brazil for supporting new investments in wastewater treatment. It aims at environmental problems of water pollution caused by discharges of raw sewage. Rather than allocating public funding for engineering works or procurement of equipment, a new approach focuses on payment for results, i.e., attainment of efficiency goals and removal of organic loads, measured in terms of kilograms of BOD per day, and operational performance of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs).

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The Experience of Condominial Water and Sewerage Systems in Brazil

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This project illustrate and compared the experience of the implementation of the condominial model in three Brazilian cities: Brasilia (the nation’s capital); Salvador (a major, historic metropolis in northeastern Brazil); and Parauapebas (a small but fast-growing boom town). Together, the projects analyzed have succeeded in providing condominial networks to 2.5 million urban residents in Brazil, with 214,000 connections organized in close to 16,000 condominiums.

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Small-Scale Sludge Treatment System for Daeum Mien: a Gret sanitation project in Cambodia.

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Access to water and sanitation are one of the most pressing issues people are facing in rural Cambodia. Prior to this project, business for private desludgers was relatively minor, with no sludge treatment plants and correspondingly high prices. Facing this issue, the GRET began a small-scale sludge treatment plant project, as part of the larger PACEPAC sanitation programme in Cambodia. In the town of Daeum Mien, the project used an innovative small-footprint and low cost design for a sludge treatment plant that would fully process the sludge into useable compost.

The plant was constructed above-ground and in two separate floors, which is useful in very rocky areas that are difficult to excavate or in areas with a small available land footprint. This small-scale plant was designed to be completely demechanized, requiring no electricity nor water supply, as rainwater would be collected from the roof into a concrete cistern for use around the site. The components of the treatment plant are as follows: inlet bar screen, solid extraction settler, anaerobic baffled reactor, aerobic pond, sludge drying beds, and open-air, contained compost heaps. This plant will be able to treat 2m3 per day of domestic sludge.

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ONE DROP’s tripod approach as a means to fight poverty by supporting access to water in developing countries

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Our projects are carried out using a tripod approach, which is made up of three complementary components aimed at fighting poverty: (1) to raise the population’s awareness through social  arts and popular education, (2) to improve access to water, responsible management of said resource and sanitation, and (3) to grant microcredits.The water management component involves various measures. First, improving access to water by protecting and/or rebuilding/building structures to be used as a water source, and also through rainwater harvesting . Second, developing family gardens (drip irrigation systems).

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Protection of Natural sources of water in Bharatpur

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The solution to the increasing water problem in Bharatpur Municipality was targeted and in the process of solution, we identified the various natural sources that were diminished in the past, by field inspection such as well, spring water, lakes etc. Then the local people were awareness for the importance and protection of such sources. The municipality and local authority were insisted for the protection and re construction of the Diminished natural sources.

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Establishment of a consultation strategy to ensure adoption of the sanitation master plan for the agglomeration of Paris

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The sanitation master plan for the SIAAP area needs to respond to regulatory developments (European norms) and to changes in pressure/impacts on the environment (urbanization, climate change, etc.). 

The sanitation master plan is an information-sharing tool that forms part of the consultation process within a coherent regional area, where the aim is to pool both targets and investment so as to control the cost of the water bill.

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Integrated Water Sanitation and Hygiene improvement project focused on Urban poor communities ( Slums and sqatters)

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Lumanti in partnership with Itahari Municipality has been implementing ‘Itahari Integrated Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement Program’ (IWASH) in all targeted clusters of 4 wards.During the program implementing period, in the fiscal year 2009/10, under IWASH program, Lumanti in partnership with Itahari Municipality has covered 6 clusters (342 HH) of ward 6. To address the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in the targeted clusters of ward 6, Lumanti has initiated hardware and software programs. Likewise, during the fiscal year 2010/11, the program has covered five clusters (252 HH) of ward 7 and two clusters (87 HH) of ward 8 to address the water, sanitation and hygiene situation. The program has also covered one added cluster (94 HH), Shiva Parbati tole of ward 6, during the fiscal year 2010/11 with the recommendation of Itahari Municipality as the clusters is just adjacent to Dedhgaria tole focusing the declaration of ODF zone.  In this fiscal year 2010/11, IWASH program has also intervened  six clusters (369 HH) of ward 9  through its hygiene promotion program through CHM and CHV.

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