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Sand dams – A solution for dryland communities

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Sand dams are a simple, low cost and low maintenance, replicable rainwater harvesting technology. It’s a solution that focuses on community ownership and self supply that involves significant community contribution and locally supplied skills.

They provide a clean, local water supply for domestic and farming use and are suited to arid and semi-arid areas of the world.  A sand dam is a reinforced concrete wall (or a similarly robust and impermeable weir) typically built 1 – 5 metres high across a seasonal sand river. When it rains the dam captures soil laden water behind it – the sand in the water sinks to the bottom, whilst the silt remains suspended in the water.

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Restoration of Dignity and Human Rights through Access to Toilets

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Sulabh pour-flush, compost toilet is eco-friendly, technically appropriate, socio-culturally acceptable and economically affordable. It is an indigenous technology and the toilet can easily be constructed by local labour and materials. It provides health benefits by safe disposal of human excreta on-site. It consists of a pan with a steep slope and an especially designed trap with 20 mm water-seal, requiring only 1-1.5 litre of water for flushing, thus helping conserve water. No scavengers are needed to clean the pits. There are two pits of varying size and capacity depending on the number of users. The capacity of each pit is normally designed for 3 years’ usage. Both pits are used alternately. When one pit is full, the incoming excreta is diverted into the second pit. In about two years, the sludge gets digested and is almost dry and pathogen free, thus safe for handling as manure. Digested sludge is odourless and is a good manure and soil-conditioner. It can be dug out easily and used for agriculture. The cost of emptying the pit can be met partially from the cost of manure made available. Sulabh toilet can also be constructed on the upper floors of buildings. It has a high potential for upgradation, and can later be easily connected to sewers when introduced in the area.

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DRBC’s Water System Audits and Water Loss Control Program

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Many water system audits have been conducted in the absence of consistent definitions and standards and have often used inappropriate metrics for measuring the water supply efficiency. The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) is one of a handful of regulatory agencies in the USA that has changed its regulations to reflect the improved approach to water loss accounting made possible by the IWA/AWWA methodology. The 2009 amendment to the DRBC Water Code requiring the new audit format was developed by DRBC staff and the DRBC’s Water Management Advisory Committee (WMAC). Compliance with the program was voluntary in 2011 and required in 2012. DRBC, in partnership with a number of large municipal and private water purveyors, has held workshops and training sessions for water system operators.

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NATIONAL PROGRAM OF SAVING WATER IN IRRIGATION

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Morocco is a highly water-stressed country, and it is imperative that its increasingly scarce water resources be managed as efficiently and as economically as possible, so as to cope with the high energy costs involved in their mobilization. Such management necessarily entails a positive and sustainable use of irrigation water which accounts for more than 80% of mobilized water resources, with losses often exceeding 50% of the quantity of water drawn. This explains why Government has given pride of place to PNEEI.

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GROUNDWATER AND SOIL CONSERVATION PROJECT, YEMEN

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The key emphasis of this solution is replacement of traditional method by a modern systems: groundwater-based irrigation pipes conveyance and modernized on-farm irrigation systems. The major performance indicators are linked to water savings elements such as pumped quantities of irrigation water and time, fuel, labor, increase in productivity, overall net water savings in groundwater abstraction, and water use productivity.

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Public-Private Participation in Large Scale Irrigation Schemes – West Delta, Egypt

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The West Nile Delta area is about 255,000 feddans (1 feddan= 0.42 ha) which provides jobs to about 250,000 people in the agriculture sector. The area has experienced noticeable agricultural growth over the past few years through exploitation of groundwater resources to produce high each crop for export and local market consumption. With the progress of development, there has been excessive depletion of the groundwater reserves. 

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Nebraska Agricultural Water Management Network (NAWMN)

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Maximizing the net benefits of irrigated plant production through appropriately designed agricultural water management programs is of growing importance in Nebraska, and other western and Midwestern states, and around the world, because many areas are involved in management and policy changes to conserve irrigation water. In Nebraska, farmers are being challenged to practice conservation methods and use water resources more efficiently while meeting plant water requirements and maintaining high yields.

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